What is ISO 22000:2005?
ISO 22000: 2005 is an abbreviation which stands for the International Organization for Standardization. This compliance is required for industries and companies that are engaged in the process of food manufacturing. This certification would not only apply to food manufacturing organizations but also will apply to other organizations in the food processing supply chain.
Hence this certification is essential for all the supply chain entities to actively participate in the food manufacturing process. For this, effective communication is the key. Without communication, integration between different supply chain departments cannot be considered. It would become impossible to monitor the compliance of food safety standards without communication.
Food Safety Compliance is one of the crucial aspects in the management and processing of food. Food safety is understood as hazards that cause problems at any point of time in the food supply chain process. The main element of food safety is identification, which is required to find out the issues that cause food to spoil.
Food Manufacturing Process
In the food supply chain cycle, different processes have to be maintained. Under the ISO 22000: 2005 principles, communication between the supply chain processes is crucial. Communication here is classified as upstream communication and downstream communication. The following components are present in the food manufacturing process:
- Raw Materials Purchase
- Preparation and Industrial Creation
- Mixing and Cooking
- Packaging and Dispatch
According to the principles of the ISO 22000: 2005, the communication process has to be maintained between all the above stages of the food manufacturing process. To maintain the food safety management systems under the ISO 22000: 2005, it is important to ensure safety in all food manufacturing processes.
The certification will be valid until June 2021. Therefore, industries planning to get the license in this certification would have to adopt the new standards (ISO 22000: 2018) under ISO for food safety processes.
Elements of the ISO 22000: 2005
The key elements of the ISO 22000: 2018 FSMS are:
Communication is an essential part and process in the entire food supply chain. Without interactive communication, it would be impossible to monitor the safety standards for all the food supply and manufacturing processes. Communication will involve not only internal communication but also includes external communication. External communication is crucial for an organization to understand any issues with the food manufacturing process. External Communication mainly involves external stakeholders and end-users, such as customers. Feedback is essential to understand if there are any forms of discrepancies in the food manufacturing processes.
Management of System
This international standard for food safety and systems management (FSMS) can be applied to other management systems. The principles adopted in the ISO 22000: 2005 can be aligned with other forms of ISO systems that are internationally adopted.
Prerequisites of Programs (PRPs)
There are different programs adopted under this certification for constant development. These programs are essential for the organization's development, which is engaged in the food manufacturing process in the supply chain.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)
The HACCP principles and steps have been formulated and developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. With proper audits, the HACCP can be integrated with the prerequisite programs developed for food safety and compliance management. Through these measures, a hazard mechanism method can be adopted by an organization. As per the International Community, hazards can take place in all parts of the food manufacturing life cycle. Hence, it is important to have a risk handling mechanism to address all the relevant risks in the food manufacturing process.
In the above mechanism, an organization will combine the pre-requisite programs, the operational pre-requisite program, and the principles developed by the HACCP.
Regulatory Authority for ISO 22000: 2005 certification
The primary regulatory authority for ISO 22000: 2005 certification is the International Organization of Standardization, an independent and autonomous institution developed according to international standards. To comply with the above certification, member countries or organizations present in member countries have to follow the ISO 22000: 2005 certification elements.
In compliance with the above principles, a member country has to adopt the principles of the ISO 22000: 2005 or develop similar standards in line with the international community's principles. India has developed principles that come in line with the principles which are followed by the international community. Hence, any organization present in the food manufacturing cycle or process has to adopt the above principles to comply with the international norms.
Food Safety Management Systems in India (ISO 22000: 2005)
This would include the main objectives for an organization adopting the above principles. One of the above principles' main objectives is to ensure food safety standards and respective laws are complied by the respective organization. The scope would apply to all organizations in the process of manufacturing food, whether they are large or small. Hence it is crucial to understand that, if an organization adopts the certification, it would have to comply with the respective norms. The scopes of adopting international standards are as follows:
- To have a strategic plan, implement the plan, and follow up protocols to ensure that food safety is a priority for consumers.
- To ensure that food consumed by the end-user follows the necessary standards for food safety compliance and management.
- Organizations taking this certification can demonstrate that compliance is maintained related to the respective food processing standards.
- Communication of safety norms with the internal and external supply chain in the food manufacturing process.
References are used when an organization would require referring to the respective ISO document. For clarity purposes, the latest edition of the ISO document must be used by the organization.
Terms and Definitions
Terms and definitions for the above standards would be the same. Hence, terms and definitions used and interpreted by the ISO 9000 can be utilized by the ISO 22000: 2005. Hence ISO 9000 definitions are used for interpretation. Wherever there is any difference in meaning, the same must be mentioned.
Under the FSMS, the organization has the sole responsibility of documenting and maintaining specific standards for food safety and management. To maintain the food safety standards as per the FSMS, the following have to be followed:
- Any form of organization should understand that food hazards can occur in any process in the supply chain of the food manufacturing cycle.
- There has to be efficient communication in the supply chain for the management of food. Communication will reduce the number of risks that are present in the food manufacturing process.
- Implementation of food safety measures is required in the organization's supply chain. This has to be implemented throughout the organization.
- The organization must also ensure that modern practices are followed and implemented in the organization.
- There have to be effective systems to control the management of documents and records in the organization.
Responsibility of the Management
The management of the organization would comprise the shareholders and board of directors of the company. Decisions that are taken by the management of the organization must be for the benefit of the organization. Apart from this, the organization must show that the organization implements modern practices. The management of the organization must show the following practices:
- Ensure that the objectives of the organization promote food safety and promote standards of welfare amongst the consumers.
- Implementing food safety standards throughout the organization.
- Appoint an executive to look into the organization's social responsibility when it comes to the perspective of food safety management.
- Ensure that there is a food safety policy for the organization. Apart from this, the management also has to make sure that this policy is updated according to the current changes.
- Ensure proper communication between the external and internal stakeholders in an organization to ensure that there is no form of compromise with respect to the quality standards.
An organization should maintain a minimum number of optimum resources for compliance with the food and safety standards as per the respective protocols.
- Human Resources- Skilled and Unskilled Labor to carry out all the respective responsibilities to ensure that compliance concerning food quality is maintained.
- Training must be provided to ensure that the individuals working in an organization must maintain quality standards.
- Resources in an organization will also include the availability of infrastructures, such as equipment and necessary resources.
Planning and use of Safe Products
Under the ISO 22000: 2005, it is a stressed fact that food spoilage can happen at any phase of the food manufacturing process. The organization must have a systematic plan to ensure that hazards and risks are mitigated:
- In this phase, the PRP, also known as the respective Prerequisite Programs, is considered in planning.
- Operational Prerequisites are also considered as a part of this program.
- The pre-requisite program must meet the following in an organization:
a) Ensure that food safety protocols have been implemented in the organization.
b) Ensure that the organization has standards for maintaining the optimum level of food production.
- Have an approved team for food safety and other forms of protocols.
- Ensure that proper protocols have been developed for implementing hazard analysis systems. The following have to be considered by an organization when implementing the framework for hazard analysis:
a) Determination of Products and Hazard analysis protocol.
- HACCP Planning and Procedure.
- Traceability and Verification Analysis for the food processes in an organization.
- Non-Conformity Analysis of food
- Non Conformity of food products and the organization's corrective actions to remedy the situation.
- Release of products that comply with the standards related to food safety protocols followed by an organization.
- Disposition of products that do not conform to the requirements of the compliance protocols.
Improvement of the FSMS (Food Safety protocols and Management System of the organization)
- Control and monitoring the measures to improve the quality standards of food safety under the ISO 22000: 2005.
- Organizations must ensure that there is a system of verification. This system can be achieved through proper internal audit procedures.
- Apart from this, organizations must ensure that the organization shows continuous improvement.
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