Environmental and Energy Law Environmental and energy law is a broad field that deals with the production, use, and sustainability of energy while also regulating the environment. It aims to establish a balance between ecological protection and human progress. It consists of different laws, rules, and international agreements that control matters including air and water quality, wildlife conservation, renewable energy, emissions reduction, and land use planning. Environmental and energy law is vital in global environmental concerns because it plays a significant role in addressing climate change, enabling sustainable resource management, and encouraging responsible energy practices. What is Energy law? Enacting, upholding, and challenging rules that control how energy is used are all topics covered by energy law. The usage and taxation of renewable and non-renewable energy sources are governed by the law of law known as energy law. Energy laws cover any rules, laws, cases, legislation, and ordinances related to energy. As a result, certain regulations are in place to control the creation and collection of energy. These guidelines also apply to the taxation of energy use. Both energy firms and the general public must understand the energy regulations that control the purchase, use, and conservation of energy resources. In our nation, energy law is a subset of commercial law rather than a separate field of the law. Where does energy come from? Four primary uses of energy can be distinguished in India: commercial, such as in offices, shopping malls, hospitals, and inns; industrial, such as in manufacturing, development, and horticulture; and residential, such as apartments and houses; transportation, such as cars, trains, and aeroplanes. Nuclear energy accounts for about 3.2% of all power generated in India. India produces about 40 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity from nuclear power. U235 is a kind of uranium that is commonly used in nuclear power plants as the material that splits atoms to produce electricity. Despite being "relatively rare," U235 is present in rocks all throughout the planet. U235 must, therefore, be mined similarly to coal. But before it can be utilised in nuclear power plants, uranium must undergo a complex technological and chemical process, in contrast to coal. Key Challenges The challenges we face in environmental and energy law cover a wide range of topics, from resolving environmental justice concerns to mitigating climate change and controlling resource use. These difficulties are made even more difficult by navigating the shifting terrain of technical breakthroughs, enforcing rules, and juggling competing political and economic interests. In order to promote sustainability, protect ecosystems, and transition to cleaner energy sources while addressing disparities in environmental impacts and fostering public participation in decision-making processes, these multifaceted obstacles require comprehensive legal frameworks, strong enforcement mechanisms, and global collaboration. India’s energy policy The nation's expanding energy deficit and growing emphasis on developing alternative energy sources, especially nuclear, solar, and wind energy, largely dictate the country's energy policy. India was 63 per cent self-sufficient in energy overall in 2017. Since 2013, India has had the third-largest global primary energy consumption after China and the US. India was the world's second-largest coal consumer in 2017 after China. With 221 million tonnes of oil consumed in 2017, India came in third behind the US and China. With around 47% of its total primary energy coming from imports, India would be a net energy importer in 2019. With a 5.8% global share, India ranked third in the world in terms of primary energy consumption in 2019, behind China and the United States. The overall primary energy consumption in 2018 was 809.2 Mtoe (million tonnes of oil equivalent), of which coal accounted for 452.2 Mtoe (45.88%). Crude oil production (239.1 Mtoe; 29.55 %) (49.9 Mtoe; 6.17 percent) Natural gas Atomic energy (8.8 Mtoe; 1.09%) Power from hydroelectric sources (31,6 Mtoe; 3.91%) (Without traditional biomass use) Renewable energy (27.5 Mtoe; 3.40%). India is one of the world's energy markets that is expanding the fastest. By 2035, it is expected to account for 18% of the increase in global energy consumption, making it the second-largest contributor. India is planning to expand its nuclear power and sustainable energy projects in light of the nation's rising energy needs and constrained domestic oil and gas resources. India is the world's fourth-largest market for wind energy and plans to install 100,000 megawatts (MW) of solar power by 2022. India plans to increase nuclear power's share of global energy-producing capacity from 4.2 per cent to 9 per cent within the next 25 years. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which was introduced on June 30, 2008, and the INDC submitted to the UNFCC serve as the foundation for India's climate strategy. The national level of planning is the emphasis of NAPCC. The Paris Climate Change Summit's announcement of the INDC serves as both India's declaration of intent and a global commitment. India's climate plan is based on the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which was unveiled on June 30, 2008, and the INDC submitted to the UNFCC. The focus of NAPCC is on planning at the national level. The INDC is a worldwide commitment, and a declaration of intent from India made at the Paris Climate Change Summit. Additionally, a lot of states have started to create and implement their state action plans on climate change. 33 states and territories have created SAPCCs as of this writing in order to incorporate climate change concerns into their planning procedures. The SAPCC incorporates ongoing programmes and projects at the state and NAPCC levels while building on current state government policies. The state-by-state analysis of climate change vulnerability, associated threats, and effects is the main focus of SAPCC. Strategies for adaptation and mitigation that will lessen the nation's vulnerability in the short, medium, and long terms should be recognised by SAPCC. The Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAME) scheme was introduced in April 2015 as part of the National Mission on Electric Mobility to promote, produce, and sell EVs. Under the FAME Scheme, the sale of EVs had reached 73,269 units as of May 2021. This saved 19 million litres of gasoline and offset 47,712 tonnes of carbon dioxide respectively. The adoption of electric vehicles is now being led by Maharashtra, followed by Rajasthan and Delhi. The Indian government recently declared that a new hydrogen energy mission and a new roadmap for the nation will shortly be introduced. Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) has started a pilot study to evaluate hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) for use in transportation. H-CNG has demonstrated encouraging results in terms of decreasing emissions and is more environmentally friendly than CNG. ONGC and Hindustan Petroleum are two additional oil corporations researching hydrogen technology. Hydrogen that is "green" has the capacity to lessen pollution. According to the Energy Research Institute (TERI), green hydrogen will account for 80% of all hydrogen by 2050. Relationship between Energy and Environmental Law Aspect Energy Law Environmental Law Focus Primarily regulates energy production, distribution, and consumption. Protects the planet's natural resources and public health in the first place. Objectives It ensures a consistent supply of energy, encourages energy efficiency, and controls the energy markets. It protects the ecosystems, air, water, and land while reducing pollution and habitat loss. Regulatory Institutions Regulatory bodies such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) oversee energy markets. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and various state agencies enforce environmental regulations. Important Concerns Regulation of energy sources (such as fossil fuels and renewable energy sources), electricity price, and grid stability. Standards for the air and water purity, the control of hazardous waste, and the preservation of wildlife. Environmental Change Interactions Reduces greenhouse gas emissions and might encourage the switch to clean energy. Regulates emissions and sets goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Regulations and Sanctions There may be regulatory and permitting overlap as a result of the environmental effects of energy production. Environmental laws affect energy production by influencing the selection of energy sources and emissions. Penalties Non-compliance could lead to fines or licence revocation, which would have an impact on how energy businesses operate. It imposes fines, penalties, and legal action against organisations that affect the environment and may result from non-compliance. Integration of Policy To encourage the use of sustainable energy practises, energy and environmental policy are becoming more entwined. Environmental impact analyses and the permitting procedure both take energy into account. Sustainability It encourages the use of renewable energy sources and sustainable energy practices. It is to guarantee the planet's long-term sustainability and the long-term viability of ecosystems. International Accords It involves international energy accords (like the Paris Agreement) that have an effect on domestic policies. Participates in international environmental agreements (such as the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol) to solve environmental concerns on a global scale.