Enforcement of Pledge

EnterSlice offers expert solutions for enforcing security and pledge agreements, including asset recovery and legal compliance. They guide clients through complex procedures to protect rights and investments. Strategic guidance Comprehensive Implementation Support Document preparation R..

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Enforcement of Security and Pledge Agreements

In numerous financial transactions, security and pledge agreements are essential because they offer lenders some measure of protection against borrower defaults. In the case of insolvency by the borrower, these agreements provide a structure for securing assets or collateralizing debts, guaranteeing that lenders can recover their investments. Our team provides the important elements and procedures involved in the enforcement of security and pledge agreements.

What are Security and Pledge Agreements?


A legally enforceable contract known as a security agreement enables a borrower (debtor) to pledge assets or collateral as security for a loan or debt.

Real estate, automobiles, inventories, accounts receivable, and intellectual property are typical examples of collateral.

The agreement specifies the terms under which the lender may take ownership of the collateral to satisfy the loan, outlining the rights and obligations of both parties.

Pledge Agreement:

When securities like stocks, bonds, or other financial assets are provided as collateral, a pledge agreement is a particular kind of security arrangement that is employed.

While maintaining beneficial ownership, the borrower transfers ownership of the pledged securities to the lender.

The lender may sell the pledged securities to recoup the unpaid debt in the event of failure. Our group is attempting to find a solution.

What's the Process for a Share Pledge Agreement?

Three parties are involved in a share promise agreement:

  • Investor,
  • borrower,
  • and promoter.

A collateral contract is signed between the promoter and the borrower. In contrast, the main agreement is made between the lender, typically a bank or an NBFC, and the borrower, a corporation. The specifics of the securities or collateral pledged in the principal contract are contained in the collateral contract. This is done to ensure that the ownership and amount of securities pledged are without any doubt.

The share-pledging arrangement goes into effect after the borrower accepts it. The promoter engages in loan negotiations with the lender both as an individual and as the company's agent.

What Are the Potential Risks of This Agreement?

The following are the risks connected with this agreement:

Risks for promoters

On the stock exchange, shares are traded, and their prices are constantly fluctuating. The value of the collateral likewise drops if the share price does. This is referred to as a marginal call. The promoter must commit additional shares to make up for the decreased value. The lender often invokes the pledge by selling the pledged shares in the market and realizing his money if the promoter fails to make the margin call.

Risks faced by investors:

The market views companies with a high percentage of promoter pledging as dangerous because it raises concerns about promoters running out of money on a personal level or having debt issues in other businesses. The price of shares decreases even more when the lenders sell the pledged shares on the open market. The company's shareholding structure is also changed when lenders sell shares on the open market.

Even the promoters typically lose ownership of the company and have no or limited voting power when important decisions are made. Investors should, therefore, pay particular attention to promoter pledging since firms with high pledges may see significant changes in their stock values. We conduct due diligence as an investor and acquire the required data on pledged shares on the websites of the stock exchanges.

Regulations Involved in a Share Pledge Agreement

Pledge agreements were governed under the Indian Contract Act of 1872 and the Banking Regulation Act of 1949 before the establishment of SEBI. SEBI was created in 1992.

The Government formed SEBI in 1992, a statutory authority, to oversee the nation's capital and securities markets. SEBI makes sure that investors' interests are safeguarded by regularly releasing recommendations and making regulations in its capacity as the securities regulator. The SEBI (Substantial Acquisitions of Shares and Takeover) Regulations, 2011, or SAST Regulations, were introduced by SEBI in 2011. The Regulations were primarily added to control the purchase of shares and voting rights in Indian publicly traded corporations. It specifies the information that both the pledger and the pledgee must disclose regarding the shares being pledged.

The SAST Regulations' two principal Regulations that mandate disclosure are as follows:

Regulation 29:

  • It deals with the lender's disclosure requirements. According to the regulation, the lender or any person acting jointly with him who acquires or disposes of shares or voting rights in the company totalling 5% or more must disclose their voting rights and/or total share ownership in the company within 10 working days of the acquisition of such shares or voting rights. Every stock exchange where the company's shares are listed must receive the disclosure and the company's registered office.
  • Additionally, a notification must be given if there is a change in share ownership or voting rights. Even if the overall shareholding or voting rights decrease to below 5% or increase to above 29%, disclosure is required in both cases.
  • Scheduled commercial banks and public financial institutions may pledge shares to secure debts in the ordinary course of their operations without being subject to this regulation.

Regulation 30:

  • It addresses the promoters' disclosure obligations. According to this, the promoter of the company is required to provide all information regarding the shares that are encumbered, as well as any information regarding the triggering or release of such encumbrance by him or by those acting in concert with him within the company. Within seven working days of the formation, invocation, or release of the encumbrance, as applicable, the disclosure must be provided to:
  • The target company is at its registered office, each stock exchange where the company's shares are listed.
  • SEBI recently exempted the following companies from the SAST Regulations' disclosure requirements:
  • Deposit-taking Housing Finance Companies (HFCS) or HFCs registered with the National Housing Bank (NHB)
  • and with assets of at least Rs. 500 crores are considered to be systemically important NBFCs.

Pledging of Shares for Non-Residents

Due to the regulation modification made by the RBI in its Circular 57, non-resident owners of Indian enterprises are now able to apply for loans from both Indian and foreign banks. After getting the no-objection certificate (NOC) from the pertinent authorized dealers (AD), they can pledge their shares using their ownership in Indian companies as collateral.

As a result, subject to meeting the requirements set out, the need to first get RBI clearance is waived to pledge Indian shares held by non-residents. Private, public sector, and multinational banks can function as ADs in cases relating to share pledging. ADs in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI).

Security and pledge agreement enforcement

A number of judicial and administrative procedures are often necessary for these agreements to be enforced. The important steps in this method are listed below:

Standard Notification:

  • The lender starts the enforcement procedure when a borrower makes a payment on a loan or other debt by sending a written notice of default.
  • The notice often includes the default amount, the collateral susceptible to enforcement, and the grace period for the borrower to remedy the default.

Seizure of Collateral:

  • If the default continues, the lender may seize the collateral. Physical seizure, control transfer (for pledged securities), or other suitable measures may be used to accomplish this.
  • The lender must adhere to all applicable rules and regulations to avoid violating the debtor's rights during the seizure.

Collateral Valuation:

  • The lender must determine the worth of the collateral after seizing it. This may involve appraisals, inspections, or market assessments.
  • Whether the collateral totally or partially pays off the outstanding loan depends on its value.

Sale or Liquidation:

  • The lender may sell or liquidate the collateral to recoup the loan owing if its worth is sufficient to do so.
  • Proper sales practises and marketing strategies should be used to get the best pricing.

Surplus or Deficiency:

 The lender accounts for any surplus or deficit following the sale of the collateral. While shortfalls may continue to be the borrower's financial obligation, excess proceeds are refunded to the borrower.

Enterslice helps you with:

  • The agreement, which is used to enforce security and pledge arrangements, complies with the governing laws.
  • Lenders are required to abide by all applicable regulations, including licensing, disclosure, and consumer protection legislation.
  • If there is a disagreement or if the available collateral is insufficient to pay the debt in full, legal action may be required to retrieve the unpaid balance.

Frequently Asked Questions

An asset or piece of property that is pledged as collateral is covered by a security agreement, which grants a lender a security interest in it. Covenants describing requirements for insurance, a payback plan, or rules for the advancing of cash are frequently seen in security agreements.

A pledge agreement qualifies as a security arrangement under the UCC. A pledge agreement may include different representations, warranties, and covenants than a security agreement over corporate assets (such as voting rights) due to the nature of the pledged assets.

Any person who has acquired any of the secured assets from the borrower and from whom any money is due or may become due to the borrower is required to pay the secured creditor as much of the money as is necessary to fulfil the secured debt at any time by giving written notice to that person.

Every policy and control should be enforced through a variety of processes and incentives, including authentication, authorization, audits, fines, rewards, and recognition.

Additionally, the Contract Act's Section 174 expressly states that a pawnee cannot exercise his right of redemption for any other debt or commitment save the one for which the goods have been pledged, barring any agreement to the contrary.

When accompanied by the Documentwork, such as a Power of Attorney, third-party custodians will accept pledge/release instructions from in-scope entities directly from pledgers, secured parties, utilities, or administrators on behalf of the entities required to post IM.

As was previously said, the GSA may identify a number of items that the lender may legally seize as collateral in the event of default from the GSA. A business's tangible property may be among the listed assets.


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