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What is the Difference Between FPO and FSSAI?

Difference Between FPO and FSSAI

India being a land of different types of cultures having its own nutritive and culinary customs, has directly influenced the food business. There are numerous businesses in this Indian market relating to food business that it becomes difficult to standardize this food industry.  Therefore when it comes to such a big market, safety of public health is a matter of concern. The government has taken many steps to regulate the food industry standards, such as the FPO and FSSAI. Let’s know more about FPO and FSSAI.

What do you mean by FPO and FSSAI?

FPO stands for Fruit Products Order. It was there before the implementation of FSSAI. It was formed as a health and hygiene regulatory certificate that was given to food business operators that made food products derived from fruits and vegetables. FPO was active since 1955 and then became a redundant order.

FSSAI stands for Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. The Food Safety and Standards Act came into effect in 2006. The Act provides for examining and approving as a source of food that is safe for human consumption. This Act authorized the amalgamation of every previous food organizations into one governing body, which is known as FSSAI. It is the main regulator and principal body that governs and regulates the food industry in India. It operates as the governing authority, and every food business operator needs to register itself and examined by FSSAI to start its operations in India.

FPO prescribed for standards and hygienic conditions for the manufacture of processed fruits and vegetables and operated under the FPO Act of 1955. The requirements were mandatory, and the scheme was operated under the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India. When the FSS Act was passed in 2006, it led to the formation of FSSAI; therefore, FPO and many other previously existing acts were withdrawn, and the provisions were incorporated in FSSAI.

Why was there a need for Food Safety Regulation like FPO and FSSAI?

Any defective product that you eat or drink can have adverse effect on your well being, and it can put your life in danger. Just imagine you consume a product that has caused you food poisoning because of the poor quality of the food. It may be an isolated case where only one person is affected but imagine if this occurs to everyone who eats the food product. You can’t even fathom the amount of harm it can cause to the general public. Hence food regulating bodies (FPO and FSSAI) have played a crucial role in this regard.

The best example of consuming food without safety can be of the Coronavirus that spread from a city in China. Researchers claimed that the spread of virus was because of the consumption of animals that are unsafe for human consumption. You all know the damage that it caused later on. There are many perils of having an unregulated food industry. Therefore the measures taken by India in the form of FPO and FSSAI to regulate food industry is only for the best.

How does FSSAI work?

FSSAI has a decentralized organizational structure, and every state has a separate division of FSSAI office that work in tandem with the local municipal corporation of that state. It administers and controls the food industry by making food quality principles. Further, safety regulations has to be followed by all registered food businesses. Those food business operators who doesn’t follow the guidelines from FSSAI loses its status and cannot function under law.

FSSAI Certification

The food industry is just like any business industry that needs shops and establishments and association of different volumes. Although any admired fast food chain may be categorized as a medium to large scale business there are large scale businesses like FMCG goods producer and hoteliers.

The size of Business is also one of the essential criteria to go for FSSAI registration. The reason being any small scale business won’t need regulations as much as those by large business.

FSSAI registration/license can be availed of as per your annual turnover:

FSSAI License Types
  • Basic FSSAI Registration- for organizations with annual turnover less than Rs. 12 lakh;
  • State FSSAI License- for organizations with annual turnover between Rs. 12 lakh and 20 crore;
  • Central FSSAI License– for organizations with an annual turnover of more than Rs. 20 crore.

FPO certification

It is a certification mark which is mandatory for all processed fruit products sold in India like packaged fruit beverages, fruit jams, crushes, and squashes, etc. FPO certification was effective since 1955 but only became mandatory in 2006 when FSS Act promulgated under Section 3 of the Essential Commodities Act 1955 to regulate fruits and vegetables processing.

The ministry launched numerous publicity campaigns to educate the public and fruit processors to understand its necessity and mandate.  All food processors are required to obtain FPO license and do their operations by abiding to the guidelines to be able to continue the business.

FPO certification is required for:

  • Vinegar whether brewed or synthetic;
  • Synthetic beverages, syrups, and sharbat;
  • Squashes, crushes, cordials, barley water;
  •  Pickles, dehydrated fruits and vegetables;
  • Jam, jellies, marmalades, chutneys;
  • Tomato based products such as ketchup and sauces;
  • Fruits and peels preserved, candied and crystallised;
  • Canned and bottled fruits, juices, pulps and vegetables;
  • Sweetened aerated water with or without fruit juices and pulp;
  • Fruit cereal flakes;
  • Frozen Fruit and vegetables.

Who needs FSSAI Registration in India?

The following business or person requires FSSAI registration:

  • Wholesalers;
  • Food products transporters;
  • Raw food products supplier;
  • Online food business operator;
  • Food traders;
  • Food products importer and exporter;
  • Distributors of food products;
  • All types of food producer.

Consequences of non-compliance with FSSAI

A registered person has to fulfil the rules and regulations under the FSS Act of 2006. Food safety official standardizes the examination of food business and recognizes the stage of compliance with the law using a checklist.

Based upon the compliance stage, the food safety official marks compliances as:

  • Compliance;
  • Non-compliance;
  • Partial;
  • Not applicable.

The food safety official may issue an improvement notice or expansion notice under the FSS Act[1]. In case where the food business operator fails in fulfilling the notice, the official may cancel his license. If the FBO is insulted by such notice then they may appeal to the state commissioner of food safety of that state.


There are many businesses in the Indian market that makes it tough to standardize this massive food industry. As stated earlier the safety and health of customers is right up there therefore the food industry has been regulated by FSSAI and earlier it was governed by FPO. The focus of the government has been continuously to make policies to regulate the food standards through various measures like FPO and FSSAI. FPO and FSSAI have been the popular food regulating bodies among all.

Read our article:Major Difference Between Registration and License from FSSAI

Ashish M. Shaji

Ashish M. Shaji has done his graduation in law (BA. LLB) from CCS University. He has keen interests in doing extensive research and writing on legal subjects especially on corporate law. He is a creative thinker and has a great interest in exploring legal subjects.

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