Annual Compliance

Concept of ESOP Vesting Period

Concept of ESOP Vesting Period


Many businesses have been using a popular strategy these days to keep their valuable staff. This strategy involves giving employees company stock in order to keep them around for a long time and prevent borrowing money from the market. The ‘ESOP vesting period’, which allows employees to access the Company’s options or shares after it has expired, is a typical practice adopted by businesses that issue shares under ESOP schemes1.

In ESOP plans with vesting periods, the employee does not profit from the share in firm ownership until the period has passed. An employee cannot use the options granted under the ESOP plan if they quit their job before the ESOP vesting period has passed.

The numerous facets of the ESOP vesting period are covered in this article, from its definition and necessity through its various options.

What Is The ESOP Vesting Period?

The ESOP vesting period is the time frame between when employees get their ESOPs and when they are able to exercise any attached rights to options or shares. The employees are only able to obtain these shares once the ESOP vesting term has passed.

What Is The Need Of ESOP Vesting Period?

The companies are not required by law to have a vesting period. But for the following reasons, the firms purposefully maintain a vesting period:

  • To guarantee staff loyalty: The ESOP vesting schedules of comparable companies are typically uniform. To ensure employee loyalty to the organization over a medium to lengthy period of time, the vesting period’s primary purpose in the first place. If employees are given access to alternatives from the start of their employment with the Company, their chances of staying with the business for a long time decrease due to the lack of additional incentives.
  • Commercial goal: In ESOP schemes where shares are issued, the corporation seeks to accomplish its commercial goals via a variety of techniques. For instance, if an employee who has been granted shares under the ESOP scheme wishes to end their employment, the potential repercussions of selling their shares at a loss or even forfeiture may deter them from doing so before the end of their vesting period. In this manner, the vesting period aids in attaining the business objectives of the Company without the use of additional methods.
  • Tax treatment for ESOPs: The tax treatment of the plan is impacted by the ESOP vesting period. For instance, the vesting period protects the employee by allowing him to postpone the time when he would have to pay tax on a discount he would receive at the time he acquires the shares at the end of the vesting period if his interests were subject to a potential forfeiture upon gaining access to such shares.
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How Long Should The ESOP Vesting Period Be?

For a company’s ideal ESOP vesting term, there is no hard and fast rule. No standard ESOP vesting period exists. It can range anywhere from 12 months to 3 years and even longer. According to the following elements:

  • Stage of a company’s growth: Growing start-ups typically offer a short vesting time of 12 to 18 months due to their uncertainty and the potential future materialization of such equities. Due to their sheer size, established track record, and superior negotiation strength, large corporations, particularly blue chip companies, give lengthy vesting periods.
  • Financial standing of the Company: The vesting period is also based on the Company’s financial standing. Early-stage start-ups want vesting periods to be longer because they don’t want attrition, particularly during the Company’s formative years when it is in the exponential growth stage. Due to the high cost of employee integration for each new hire, big organizations also want longer vesting periods.
  • The vesting term should be between 18 and 24 months, as this will allow the Company to fully utilize the employee’s potential. This is the best practice that has been adopted in the market.

What Is The Difference Between the ESOP Vesting Period And the Restriction Period?

A period of time during which an employee is prohibited from selling his shares or options is referred to as the restriction period. Such a restriction only applies once the employee has fully vested in the shares; during the vesting period, the employee has only received the shares and has no legal right to sell them because he does not yet fully own them.

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Are There Any Other Criteria For the Vesting Of Shares Apart From the ESOP Vesting Period?

The vesting time is simply a waiting period or a minimum term of service that the employee must compelfully participate in the business before their shares vest. A minimum employment duration is not the only need for share vesting, though. In some ESOP plans, the employee receives immediate access to the shares or options in exchange for meeting certain performance standards or a predetermined goal.


An important component of employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) is the vesting period, which specifies how long an employee must be employed by a company before becoming the sole owner of stock options or grants received from the employer. The employee often gains access to a particular percentage of the options or shares over the course of this period, which is typically broken down into incremental stages. The vesting period promotes employee engagement and loyalty by incentivizing them to remain with the Company for the allotted time in order to get the full value of their stock holdings. Employees can exercise their stock options or claim the given shares after the vesting period is finished, connecting their financial interests with the Company’s success and encouraging a sense of ownership.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is the vesting period?

    In order to acquire outright employee stock options, shares of company stock, or employer contributions to a tax-advantaged retirement plan, an employee must work for their employer during a vesting period. There are various lengths for vesting periods.

  2. How long is a vesting period?

    An employee has non-forfeitable rights to employer-matched retirement funds or stock options after she has reached vesting. A common practice is for an employee's vested percentage to climb gradually over several years until it reaches 100%. The typical vesting period is three to five years.

  3. What is an example of a vesting period?

    A 401(k) corporate match is one way that money is given to an employee as an illustration of vesting. Since these matching funds typically take years to vest, an employee must work for the Company for a certain amount of time before becoming eligible to receive them. Employers have access to a powerful weapon for employee retention with vesting within stock bonuses.

  4. What does a 4 year vesting period mean?

    For instance, a four-year vesting plan entitles the employee to stock ownership after four years at a set price. You won't receive stock rights until your employment anniversary due to the one-year cliff in four-year vesting plans.

  5. What is the difference between the vesting period and the exercise period in ESOP?

    The interval between the grant date and the vesting date is known as the vesting period. Exercise Period: After shares have “vested,” an employee has the right, but not the responsibility, to purchase them for a certain amount of time. The workout period is this time frame.

  6. What is the vesting and exercise period?

    The interval between the award date and the exercise date is known as the service or vesting period. The service or vesting time would be 3 years, for instance, if a corporation granted stock options to an employee but stipulated that they must work for the Company for 3 years.

  7. What is the exercise period in ESOPs?

    “Exercise Period” refers to the window of time following vesting during which the employee must exercise his right to request shares under the ESOS-vested option. On the other hand, “Exercise Price” refers to the cost the employee must pay in order to exercise the option that was granted to him in accordance with ESOS.

  8. Is the vesting date the same as the exercise date?

    The date that the employee exercises the right to purchase shares is known as the exercise date. The period between the grant date and the vesting date is known as the vesting period. When conditions outlined previously are met, the employee has the right to purchase shares on the vesting date.

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Read Our Article: Employee Stock Option Plans (ESOPs)- An Overview



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