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The Peer to Peer lending platforms is subjected to exercise P2P lending compliances as required by the Reserve Bank of India and the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The compliances ensure the healthy working of the entity with safeguarding the interest of investors and stakeholders.
The Reserve Bank of India directs to P2P lending entities to comply with the following list of compliances,
Table of Contents
It is mandatory for a P2P entity to enroll itself and become a member of CICs (Credit Information Companies). Additionally, they are under an obligation to submit their data (including historical data) to the CICs.
They are under obligation to maintain a record of borrowers on their platform and update it regularly. The tenure for the regular update date is mutually decided between the P2P entity and the CICs. The procedure ensures that the credit record of the participants is authentic, complete and duly updated. However, it is essential to ensure that the consent of the participants is taken before collecting their data.
It is essential to maintain complete transparency by the P2P entity in favor of the Reserve Bank of India and the participants. Therefore, such entities are required to disclose significant information in relation to the lender, borrower and the public in general. Such a step ensures that the vital information is available to the regulatory, the stakeholders, participants and potential stakeholders & participants of the P2P entity.
Details about the lender, such as proposed amount, and rate of interest.
However, it excludes the identity and the contact details of the lender.
(B) NBFC P2P entity must ensure that the operations of the company must be documented. The entity shall ensure that necessary agreement between the participants of the services and the entity must take place. The agreement shall mention all the terms and conditions among the lender, the borrower, and the NBFC-P2P entity.
(C) The interest rates displayed on the Platform
shall be in Annualized Percentage Rate (APR) format.
Practice Code is the code of conduct of P2P Entities based on the guidelines
issued by the RBI for P2P NBFCs. The entity should draft the code, and the same
should be put on its website for public display.
Further, there are guidelines about the behavior of staff for the recovery process from borrowers. The direction states that the staff should undergo appropriate training and should not equip with harassing conduct towards the participants.
The code also mentions of provisions to protect the privacy rights of the participants. The code states that the information related to participants in possession of the NBFC-P2P shall not be shared with any third-party entity without the approval of the subjects.
The RBI directs for a periodic review of fair practice code in order to ensure the effectiveness of the same. The board shall also review the grievances redressal mechanism at various levels of management.
consolidated Report of reviews of such nature shall be submitted to the board
at regular intervals.
The RBI directs the P2P entity to address the complaints and grievances of the participants by the formation of the subjected policy. The policy should be approved by the board.
it directs the NBFC to display the following information on its website.
(A) The name and contact details (Telephone / Mobile numbers and email address) of the Grievance Redressal Officer who can be approached for resolution of complaints against the NBFC-P2P.
(B) If the complaint/dispute is not redressed within a period of 1 month, the participant may appeal to the Customer Education and Protection Department of the RBI.
The RBI wants to ensure the security of transactions and the exchange of data that takes place on the P2P Lending platform. Hence, guidelines to ensure the safety of data and transactions are laid down by the apex authority. IT framework ie equally important as P2P Lending compliances.
(A)There should be robust infrastructure for the IT system to get protection from unauthorized access attempts made by hackers and non-stakeholders and to ensure safety from an alteration of data.
(B)The NBFC-P2P should have a business continuity plan duly approved by the board to ensure the safekeeping of information and documents and loan tenures of active credits in case of closure of the platform.
(C)The internal systems and process of IT shall undergo an information system audit at least once in 2 years by a CISA certified external auditors.
(D) The report of external auditors should be submitted to the regional office of the Department of Non-Banking Supervision of the RBI, within one month from the date of submission of Report by an external auditor.
(E) The P2P NBFC should ensure that loan agreements shall be exercised as penned down by the third-party entities.
(F)NBFC-P2P would be required to comply with the master direction released by the RBI in concern to Information Technology Framework at all levels.
(G) The NBFC under the Ombudsman Scheme for Non-Banking Financial Companies 2018 shall appoint Nodal Officer/ Principal Nodal Officer in accordance with the guidelines laid by the RBI.
P2P NBFC has to follow certain guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India
in relation to the eligibility of the directors and shareholders of the NBFC.
These requirements are known as ‘Fit and Proper Criteria.’
(i)A board-approved policy for drafting the Fit and Proper Criteria to be qualified by the directors. Such criteria shall be consistent with the RBI directors.
(ii)The director must qualify the Fit and proper criteria during the period of their appointments as well as on an ongoing basis. The same should be certified and inform to the Reserve bank of India on a half-yearly basis.
(iii)It must obtain declaration and undertaking from the directors giving additional information that can be substantial to their appointment.
(iv)Obtain a deed of Covenants duly signed by the directors, which shall be in the prescribed format as laid by the RBI.
Allotment of shares –
The prior permission should be taken in such a case which will take the
aggregate holding of an individual or group to the equivalent of 26% and more
of the paid-up capital of the NBFC-P2P;
Takeover or acquisition – The
NBFC P2P shall take prior permission for any change in control irrespective of
whether it brings any change in management or not.
Any change in the shareholding – Any change in shareholding will
require prior approval from RBI. It can be a one-time increase or gradual
increase over time, resulting in the transfer of equity of 26 % or more.
the prior approval will not be required in case of buyback of shares or
reduction capital with approval from a competent court. However, the same is to
be reported to the RBI within 1 month of the occurrence.
(iv) Any Change in the Management – The entity will require prior approval in case of a change in more than 30 percent of the Directors. However, it does exclude independent Directors.
Any change in Shareholding- Any change in shareholding that will
give the acquirer a right to nominate a Director.
the proposed Directors and shareholders;
Sources of funds
should be disclosed of the proposed shareholders acquiring the shares in the
the proposed Directors/ shareholders stating that they do not hold association
with any unincorporated body that is accepting deposits;
the proposed Directors/ shareholders stating that they are not in association
with any other company, the application for CoR of which has been rejected by
(v) Declaration by the proposed
Directors/shareholders stating that they have not been convicted of any crime
and that there are no pending criminal cases against them, including
proceedings initiated under section 138 of the Negotiable Instruments
(vi) Bankers’ Report on the proposed Directors/shareholders
in this regard shall be submitted to the Regional Office of the Department of
Non-Banking Supervision of the RBI where the company is registered.
(i) Public notice of 30 days shall be issued before effecting the transfer or sale of the ownership by sale of shares, also in case of transfer of control, whether with or without the sale of shares.
public notice shall be given by the NBFC-P2P and also by the other party or
jointly by the parties concerned, after obtaining the prior permission of the
(ii)The public notice shall indicate the intention to sell or transfer ownership/control, the particulars of transferee and the reasons for such sale or transfer of ownership/ control. The notice shall be published in at least one leading national and in one leading local (covering the place of registered office) vernacular newspaper.
The Reserve Bank of India issues the following directory for the NBFC-P2P lender as a part of their reporting requirements. These P2P lending compliances are mandatory to follow for the Entity for the P2P entity.
(A) Submission of quarterly statements to the regional office of the RBI within 15 days from the last date of that quarter. The statements should submit details of
(B) The number of funds hosted in the Escrow Account, bifurcated into funds received from lenders and funds received from borrowers, with credit and debit summations for the quarter.
(C) Number of complaints outstanding at the beginning and at the end of the quarter, and disposed of during the quarter, bifurcated as received from
(D)The Leverage Ratio
Also, Read: Peer-to-Peer Lending Platform Safe for Investment and Borrowing.
Akash Dubey is a Law Graduate and works as an
Advisor at Enterslice. He is proficient in Legal
and Financial Advisory. His expertise in the
skills of Legal and Financial Research is an aid
to his strengths as an Advisor.
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