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All About Deferred Tax Liability (DTL) & Deferred Tax Asset (DTA)

Narendra Kumar

| Updated: Aug 15, 2019 | Category: Startup

Deferred Tax Liability

The deferred tax liability and deferred tax asset are very important components of financial statements. The deferred tax brought into accounts to make a clear picture of current and future tax. It depends upon the nature of transaction whether the Company has paid the advance tax or overpaid tax will be recognized under the deferred tax asset. Whereas, when the tax expense is more compared to tax payable which are payable in the future period will be recognized under the deferred tax liability. The adjustment is made at the end of the year while finalizing the Financial Statement of the Company.

How to recognize the Deferred Tax?

There is a difference between the taxable profit and book profit because there are certain items which are allowed or disallowed for the tax purpose.

Here are two types of difference which are created known as timing difference it can be either:

  1. Temporary Difference: Difference between book income and taxable income which can be adjustable in the subsequent period. Temporary Difference may be either:
  2. The Taxable temporary difference or
  3. Deductible temporary difference.
  4. Permanent Difference: Difference between book income and tax income which are not adjustable in the subsequent period.

Deferred tax is recognized through a Temporary and Permanent difference. The effect has been given in the financial statements either through deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability depending upon the nature of the transaction. Deferred tax is only recognized if there is a future possibility. It should be kept in mind that Deferred Tax Asset and Deferred Tax Liability are created only for the temporary difference because for the permanent difference it is not created as they are not going to be reserved.

Types of Deferred Tax

Deferred Tax Asset

It means when an asset on a Company’s balance sheet that may be used to reduce the taxable income. It refers to the situation where the Company has paid more tax or advance tax[1].

Deferred Tax Liability

It means the Company has deducted the tax less compared to tax payable and it signifies that Company may pay in future more income tax.

INCOME TAX ADVISORY

Let’s understand through an example

Deferred Tax Asset: The Company has a book profit of Rs. 1500 and this includes bad debt of Rs. 500. For Tax profit, bad debt will be allowed in the future when it is required actually to be written off. Hence taxable income after disallowance will be Rs. 2000 and the income tax rate is 30% then the entity will pay taxes on Rs. 2000 i.e. (2000*30%) Rs. 600.

If the bad debts were not disallowed, the entity would have paid tax on Rs. 1500 i.e. (1500*30%) Rs 450. For additional Rs. 150 which is already paid now and Deferred Tax Asset to be created.

Deferred Tax Liability: When the depreciation rate per income tax is higher than the depreciation rate per Companies Act, the entity will end up paying less tax for the current period. This will create a deferred tax liability. It is created under the head of Non-current Liability.

Purpose:

The main purpose of Deferred Tax asset and Deferred Tax Liability is to make the appropriate presentation in financial statements and to keep the transparency so that the stakeholder aware of the tax situation of the Company.

Disclosure:

  1. The Company should setoff assets and liabilities representing the current tax if the Company:
  2. Legally enforceable has the right to set off the recognized amounts.
  3. Intends to set off the asset and liabilities on a net basis.
  4. The Company should set off the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if the Company:
  5. Legally enforceable has a right to set off against liabilities representing current tax and
  6. Deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to taxes on income levied by the same government authority.
  7. The Major component of tax expense to be separately disclosed such as:
  8. Current Tax Expense
  9. Prior period adjustment
  10. Deferred Tax expense/income
Notes: Deferred Tax Asset and Deferred Tax Liabilities should be disclosed under a separate heading i.e. Current Assets and Current Liability respectively in the Balance Sheet of the Company.

Exemptions of items not included while calculating the Deferred Tax

A deferred tax asset or liability is not recognized if that deferred tax arises from:

  • The initial recognition of goodwill or
  • The initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that:
  • Is not a business combination and
  • It affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit

How to calculate Deferred Tax?

Carrying amount of asset/liability – Tax base of asset/liability= Temporary difference.

Mentioned the link for the study purpose https://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/Pages/tools/deferred-tax-calculator.aspx

Deferred Tax Overview

The deferred tax can be brought down through this below-mentioned approach.

  • Calculate current income tax
  • Tax should be determined accordingly
  • The Temporary difference will be required to calculate
  • The Exception should be identified
  • To identify the deductible temporary difference and tax losses
  • Accordingly, determine the tax rates
  • Recognize deferred tax
  • Setoff the assets or liabilities, if required
  • Disclosure

Conclusion:

Read Also: Salaried? You need to file Income Tax Return!

As per the Income Tax, every Company must disclose in the financial statement the accounting treatment carried out for calculating the Deferred Tax. By disclosing it brings transparency among the stakeholders.

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Narendra Kumar

Experienced Finance and Legal Professional with 12+ Years of Experience in Legal, Finance, Fintech, Blockchain, and Revenue Management.

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