Under Section 10 of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999, the Reserve Bank of India authorizes entities to deal in foreign exchange for specific purposes. These entities are known as Authorized Money Changers (AMCs).
AMC can be classified into three categories:
Such varied entities enable easy access and competitive rates for persons seeking to exchange currency.
Full Fledged Money Changers, also known as FFMCs (a type of AMC) are the entities/persons who are involved solely in the exchange of foreign currency or foreign security.
FFMCs are actively involved in the following activities:
Eligibility for obtaining FFMC Registration/License
As per RBI guidelines, an applicant of Full Fledged Money Changer (FFMC) License must meet the following requirements:
Registered as a company under the Companies Act, 2013
The Memorandum must have a mention in its Object Clause that the company will pursue money changing activity.
Has a minimum Net Owned Fund (NOF) of
25 Lacks – in case of FFMCs with single branch.
50 Lacks – in case of FFMCs with Multiple Branch.
The Company should be ‘Fit and Proper’, i.e. there shouldn’t be any criminal or civil cases pending against the company or its Director with the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) and Directorate of Enforcement (ED).
What Documents are required for obtaining an FFMC License in India?
The following documents are required to be filed along with the application for registration as Full Fledged Money Changer before RBI:
A copy of Certificate of Commencement of Business & Certificate of Incorporation of the Company.
The MoA (Memorandum of Association) and AoA (Articles of Association) of the company containing the provisions for carrying out money changing activities or a proper amendment with the same effect.
A sealed confidential report from the banker of the applicant
Copies of the audited Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account of the company for the last three years before application, wherever applicable.
A Board Resolution certified copy undertaking money changing business.
Firstly, specifying that no proceedings pending or initiated against the applicant company or its directors before the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) / Directorate of Enforcement (ED) or any other law enforcing authorities,
Second, that a policy framework on
– KYC (Know Your Customer),
– AML (Anti-Money Laundering) &
– CFT (Combating the Financing of Terrorism)
has been put in place after obtaining approval of the Reserve Bank and before the operations commenced.
What steps are involved in acquiring FFMC Registration from RBI?
What are the compliances after obtaining a License?
On obtaining approval from the RBI, either of the following documents is to be sent as evidence at the RBI’s Regional Office before the commencement of business
– Copy of the registration under Shops & Establishment Act or
– Copy of lease agreement or
– Rent receipt etc.
From the date of issuance of License, within six months FMC should commence its operations and inform the Reserve Bank at the regional office.
Every FFMC must display a copy of the money changing license or FFMC license granted by the RBI at each of its business places.
FFMCs must have a system of Concurrent Audit of all the transactions undertaken by them.
Statutory Compliances and Day-to-Day Business for FFMCs
Every FFMC entity is required to follow
of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 and
published Master Circular on Memorandum
of Instructions – governing Money Changing Activities &
RBI Master Direction consists of various compliances amongst which the most notable ones are
Registers and Books of Accounts
are certain registers which are to be
maintained by the AMC related to all its transactions:
Book and Daily Summary (related to Foreign currency notes/coins) in the form named
Book and Daily Summary (Travelers’ cheques) in the form FLM 2
of purchases of foreign currencies from the public in form FLM 3
of purchases of foreign currency notes/coins from authorized dealers and
authorized money changers in form FLM 4
of sales of foreign currency notes/coins and foreign currency travellers’
cheques to the public in form FLM 5
of sales of foreign currency notes/coins to authorized dealers / Full Fledged
Money Changers / overseas banks in form FLM 6.
cheques register surrendered to authorized dealers / authorized money changers
/ exported in form FLM 7
All the account books and registers
namely called FLM 1 to FLM 7 should be kept up-to-date and cross-checked
from time to time.
Transactions related to money
changing business should not be mixed with money changing transactions.
If the FFMC has more than one
place of business, separate registers should be maintained for each
Submission of Statements to the Reserve Bank
Currency Notes – Submit monthly consolidated statements
to RBI regarding the purchase or sale of foreign currency notes by the 10th of
the next month.
Receipt / Purchase Of USD 10,000 (or more) – a monthly
statement indicating details of receipt/purchase of USD 10,000 (or its
equivalent) and above per transaction shall be submitted to the regional office
of RBI within 10th of next month.
Foreign Currency Account/s Maintained – FFMCs should submit a quarterly
statement regarding Foreign Currency Account/s maintained in India in
– An annual Statement should
be submitted to Reserve Bank giving details of the amount written off during
the financial year within one month after the fiscal year ends.
Submission of Balance Sheet and maintenance of Net Owned Funds (NOF)
Audited Balance Sheet
are required to be submitted to the respective Regional office of RBI for
verification of their Net Owned Funds [NOF] of the AMC. Apart from this a
certificate from an auditor (statutory) regarding the NOF as on the date of the
balance sheet should also be submitted.
are to continuously maintain the minimum NOF. If ever the value falls below the
requisite minimum value it is to be brought to the notice of the Reserve Bank
immediately along with a specific time-bound plan for restoring the Net Owned
Funds to the minimum required level.
FFMC License gets renewed on an annual basis. The renewal application shall be
filed at least one month before the expiry of the License. If the License
expires, no renewal application is allowed.
stringent compliance requirement by the AMCs or the FFMCs is because they deal
directly with the public and constitute an essential area of countries finance.
According to the RBI guidelines, no entity can carry on the business of money
changing activity or advertise it unless they possess a valid FFMC license. Any
entity found in breach of this would be subject to penalties under the Foreign
Exchange Management Act, 1999.
get in touch with our service team to avail advisory service regarding
application of FFMC license or alternatively for our CFO Services which will
help with complex web of compliances and updates by allowing you to outsource
all prerequisite actions to Enterslice.
Vikalp is NLU graduate from Patiala (Punjab) and has a Diploma in Entrepreneurship Administration and Business Laws from NUJS, Kolkata. He specializes in Corporate Law, IPR and has fair share of litigation practice under his belt. Other facets of him are voracious reader, health freak and avid traveler. To him content writing comes naturally in effort to simplify the law for general public/reader.