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What are the Types of NGO Registration in India

Narendra Kumar

| Updated: Jan 23, 2018 | Category: NGO

NGOs

What are Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)?

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not a portion of a government & was not founded by states. NGOs are therefore typically independent of governments. Although the description can technically comprise for-profit corporations, the period is usually limited to social, cultural, legal, & environmental advocacy groups having goals that are non-commercial, primarily. NGOs are generally non-profit organizations that gain at least a portion of their funding from private sources. Current usage of the term is usually associated with the United Nations and authentic NGOs are those that are so designated by the UN. Since the tag NGO is measured too comprehensive by some, as it shall cover anything that is non-governmental, many NGOs now prefer the term private voluntary organization. A non-governmental organization NGO is a legally established organization created by natural or legal persons that operate independently from any government & a term usually used by governments to refer to entities that have no government status. Where the NGOs are sponsored completely or partly by governments, the NGO preserves its non-governmental status by exclusive of government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue some wider social aim that has political aspects, but that are not overtly political organizations such as political parties. Nothing like the period intergovernmental association, the time non-governmental organization has no usually decided legal definition. In many jurisdictions, these types of organization are called civil society organizations or referred to by other names.

NGO types can be understood by their orientation, level of operation, by Co-operation levels, by structural types, etc. that you can form;

Types of NGO Registration by Orientation

  • Charitable Orientation often involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the beneficiaries. It comprises of NGOs with events focused on meeting the wants of the deprived distribution of food, clothing or medicine; provision of housing, transport, schools etc. Such NGOs may also undertake relief activities during a natural or man-made disaster.
  • Service Orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
  • Participatory Orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Cooperatives often have a participatory orientation.
  • Empowering Orientation is where the aim is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. Sometimes, these groups develop spontaneously around a problem or an issue, at other times outside workers from NGOs play a facilitating role in their development. In any case, there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs acting as facilitators.

NGO types by the Level of Operation

  • Community-based Organizations (CBOs) arise out of people’s own initiatives. Which can comprise sports clubs, women’s organizations, & neighborhood organizations, religious or educational organizations? There is a large variety of these, some supported by NGOs, national or international NGOs, or bilateral or international agencies, and others independent of outside help. Some are keen on increasing the awareness of the urban poor or serving them to understand their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing such services.
  • Citywide Organizations include organizations such as the Rotary or Lion’s Club, chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups and associations of community organizations. Some are for other determinations, & become involved in serving the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the exact purpose of helping the poor.
  • National level registered NGOs include organizations such as the Red Cross, YMCAs/YWCAs, professional organizations etc. Some of these have state and city branches and assist local NGOs.
  • International NGOs range from secular agencies and Save the Children organizations, OXFAM, CARE, Ford and Rockefeller Foundations to religiously motivated groups. Their activities vary from mainly funding local NGOs, institutions, and projects, to implementing the projects themselves.

Types of NGO Registration by Structure

  • A public charitable trust which is usually floated when there is property involved, especially in terms of l& & building. Different states in India have different Trusts Acts in force, which govern the trusts in the state; in the absence of a Trusts Act in any particular state or area, the total principles of the Indian Trusts Act 1882 are applied. The chief instrument of any public charitable trust is the trust deed, wherein the aims & objects & mode of management (of the trust) should be enshrined. In every trust deed, the minimum & maximum number of trustees has to be specified.
  • According to section 20 of the Societies Registration Act, 1860, the following societies can be registered under the Act charitable societies, military orphan funds or societies established in India and societies which are established for the promotion of art, science or literature for education, the circulation of useful knowledge, the diffusion of political education, the foundation or maintenance of libraries or reading rooms for general use among the members or open to the public, or public museums & galleries of paintings & other works of art, collection of natural history, mechanical & philosophical inventions, instruments or designs. Societies are incorporated underneath the Societies Registration Act, 1860, which is a centralized act. In certain states, which have a charity commissioner, the society must not only be registered under the Societies Registration Act but also, additionally, under the Bombay Public Trusts Act. The chief instrument of any society is the MOA & rules & regulations (no stamp paper required), wherein the aims & objects & mode of management (of the society) should be enshrined.
  • According to Section-8 of Indian Companies Act, 2013 (Old section 25(1) (a) & (b) of the Indian Companies Act, 1956, a section-25) a section 8 company can be established for encouraging commerce, art, science, religion, charity or any other beneficial object, provided the profits, if any, or other income is applied for encouraging the objects of the companies & no dividend is paid to its members. For a section 8 company, the chief tool is a Memorandum & Articles of association (no stamp paper required).
  • In addition to registration, a non-profit engaged in certain activities might also require special license/permission

The model of the NGOs & NPOs in India differs by its nature & bye-laws which characterizes the objects of the association. Bye-law or MOA shall be formed throughout the formation of the above structural types of NGOs. The organizational types of NGOs differ by the body of the association like a minimum number of members, a maximum number of members, filing of accounts, operation of organization, area of operation, type of an organization like revocable or non-revocable & numerous other structural elements. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are mainly for the betterment of the people and society, it’s their duty also. There are diverse types of NGO Registration which have a precise part of emphasis & it works according to their interest area. But the other fact also that numerous NGOs fails in playing their roles & it collapse and there may also be several reasons behind it. If entirely the NGOs actually realize its responsibilities & play their role perfectly then it is sure that the conditions of the individual as well as the society will modify & it also benefits in nation-building.

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Narendra Kumar

Experienced Finance and Legal Professional with 12+ Years of Experience in Legal, Finance, Fintech, Blockchain, and Revenue Management.

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