Income Tax

Section 35 of the Income Tax Act, 1961

Section 35 of the Income Tax Act, 1961

Overview of Section 35 of the Income Tax Act,1961

Subsection (1)

(i) Expenditure on Scientific Research Related to Business

The primary recognition of subsection(1) of Section 35 of the Income Tax Act,1961, is on permitting deductions for costs associated with medical research conducted for commercial enterprise purposes. This includes any expenditure, now not of a capital nature, laid out or expended on scientific research. An important factor to note is that if such expenditure takes place earlier than the commencement of the enterprise, it can be deemed as incurred within the year the enterprise begins.

(ii) Payments to Research Associations, Universities, and Institutions

Another substantial subsection (1) factor is the allowance of deductions for amounts paid to analyze institutions, universities, faculties, or institutions engaged in medical research. However, this comes with situations. The entities receiving bills must be accredited through the prescribed authority and precisely by means of the central government. The proviso also clarifies that the deduction could be identical to the sum paid for bills made in relevant assessment years beginning from April 1, 2021.

(ii)(a) Payments to Companies for Scientific Research

A noteworthy addition to the subsection is the supply for deductions on sums paid to organizations engaged in medical research. The corporation ought to be registered in India, have clinical research and development as its fundamental item, and satisfy situations prescribed by the government.

(iii) Payments for Social Science or Statistical Research

Similar to scientific research, deductions are allowed for sums paid to investigate associations or institutions’ task research in social science or statistical studies. The equal conditions of approval by means of the prescribed authority and notification through the Central Government apply.

(iv) Deductions for Capital Expenditure on Scientific Research

Subsection (1) (iv) addresses capital expenditure on clinical studies related to the business. The deduction is allowed in step with subsection (2) provisions.

Provisions Governing Approvals

To ensure the legitimacy of claims, Section 35 of the Income Tax Act,1961, consists of several provisions for approvals. Entities, including research associations, universities, and institutions, must apply to the Central Government in the prescribed shape and way. The government is empowered to name important documents and records to check the genuineness of the sports.

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Subsection (2)

Capital Expenditure Deductions

This subsection outlines the guidelines for deducting capital expenditure on clinical research. Depending on the timing of the expenditure, either a fifth of the capital expenditure incurred earlier than April 1, 1967, or the complete capital expenditure incurred after March 31, 1967, may be deducted. However, no deduction is allowed for expenditure on land acquisition after February 29, 1984.

Additional Provisions

Subsection (2A)

This subsection affords deductions when an assessee pays a sum to a systematic research association, college, or other institution with a specific course, and the sum shall not be used for land construction acquisition or production. The deduction is equal to 1 and one-1/3 instances of the sum paid.

Subsection (2AA)

Deductions are allowed for sums paid to a National Laboratory, University, Indian Institute of Technology, or detailed person for permitted scientific studies packages. The deduction is equal to at least one and one-half times the sum paid.

Subsection (2AB)

Introduced to incentivize businesses in particular sectors, this subsection permits a deduction for expenditure on in-residence studies and development centres. The deduction is the same as one and one-half times the expenditure incurred.

Subsections (3) and (4)

These subsections outline the conditions for an agency to be entitled to deductions beneath Clause (1). A settlement with the prescribed authority for cooperation in research and development is obligatory, and particular conditions regarding the maintenance of money owed and audit are to be fulfilled.

Subsection (6)

This subsection places a limit on deductions for businesses authorized beneath sub-clause (C) of Clause (ii) (a) of subsection (1) for expenditures incurred after March 31, 2008.

Subsection (2B)

This subsection pertains to deductions for expenditures incurred before March 1, 1984, on scientific studies programs authorized by way of the prescribed authority. The deduction is one and one-fourth of instances of the certified expenditure.

Subsection (5)

In the context of amalgamation, this subsection restricts the amalgamating organization from claiming deductions, and the provisions of Section 35 of the Income Tax Act,19611, apply to the amalgamated business enterprise.

Procedural Aspects and Final Provisions

Subsections (3) and (4)

These subsections highlight the position of the prescribed authority in approving research facilities and filing reviews to certain tax authorities.

Subsection (5)

This subsection addresses the outcomes if a deduction is deemed wrongly made because of non-submission of final touch certificates within one year of the period allowed by way of the prescribed authority.

Subsection (3)

This subsection empowers the Board to refer questions regarding the nature of sports or assets used for scientific research to the Central Government or the prescribed authority, depending on the context.

Navigating the Landscape of Scientific Research Expenditure

In the ever-evolving landscape of taxation, Section 35  of the Income Tax Act 1961 stands as a beacon, guiding agencies through the difficult realm of scientific research expenditure. This comprehensive analysis has shed light on the nuances of the phase, elucidating the provisions, deductions, and conditions that organizations have to navigate to harness its advantages.

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The Heart of Section 35 of the Income Tax Act,1961: Promoting Scientific Research

At its depth, Section 35 of the Income Tax Act 1961  is a testament to the government’s commitment to fostering innovation and technological advancements. By allowing reductions for the spectrum of scientific research-related expenditures, the legislation seeks to create a conducive environment for businesses to invest in R&D activities. These activities, spanning from basic scientific research to applied research in specific domains, contribute to the growth of individual enterprises and the country’s progress on the world as a stage.

Stringent Approval Processes: Ensuring Legitimacy

The section’s insistence on approval from the prescribed authority for various entities, which includes research institutions, universities, and institutions, adds a layer of scrutiny. This is a strategic move to make sure that the most effective, legitimate and impactful research endeavours receive the coveted tax blessings. The authority’s position in comparing the feasibility of scientific studies programs and making knowledgeable choices underscores the significance of aligning research efforts with broader societal, monetary, and industrial desires.

Time Sensitivity and Procedural Rigor

An exciting element of Section 35 of the Income Tax Act of 1961 is its emphasis on timelines and procedural adherence. The time sensitivity in granting approvals and issuing notifications serves as a mechanism to prompt rapid selections and avoid useless delays. The stipulation that notifications issued before a certain date have a constrained impact for a distinctive period adds a dynamic dimension, aligning tax advantages with the evolving landscape of scientific studies priorities.

Incentivizing In-House Research and Development

Subsection (2AB) introduces a noteworthy provision through incentivizing in-house studies and improvement facilities. This move acknowledges the importance of fostering innovation within groups, aligning with the global trend of groups actively accomplishing R&D to stay aggressive. The provision not only offers a financial impetus but additionally positions organizations as lively contributors to the country-wide innovation atmosphere.

The Intricacies of Amalgamation: Balancing Growth and Taxation

The provisions below subsection (5) regarding amalgamation highlight the authorities’ dedication to maintaining delicate stability between selling studies and ensuring tax integrity throughout company restructuring. While organizations go through amalgamation, the restrictions on deductions for the amalgamating organization purpose to save you misuse of tax advantages, making sure that medical studies-associated assets preserve to contribute to the broader country-wide desires.

The Role of Universities, National Laboratories, and Institutions

The inclusion of universities, National Laboratories, and establishments inside the ambit of deductions signifies a collaborative technique to analyze. By extending tax advantages to instructional establishments and nationally identified research entities, the authorities recognize their pivotal role in shaping the future through their clinical contributions. The commitment to continued help, although approvals are withdrawn put up-price, reinforces the government’s long-term vision for research and development.

Evolving Dynamics: Amendments Reflecting Contemporary Realities

The incorporation of amendments, especially the ones put up in 2006, reflects an attention to the converting dynamics within the subject of scientific studies. The amendments make sure that the legislation stays applicable and attentive to present-day desires, facilitating a dynamic and adaptive atmosphere for groups engaged in R&D.

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The Essence of Deductions: A Catalyst for Innovation

At its essence, Section 35 of the Income Tax Act 1961  acts as a powerful catalyst for innovation, presenting groups with the inducement to spend money on medical studies without shouldering the associated cost burden. This no longer stimulates a monetary boom; however, it also positions India as a powerful contender on the worldwide level of technological innovation.

Versatility in Deductions: Tailoring Benefits to Different Avenues of Research

The versatility embedded in subsection (1) demonstrates a nuanced approach to distinctive avenues of studies. Whether it is basic medical research, carried out research in specific domain names, or endeavours exploring the geographical regions of social science or data, Section 35 of the Income Tax Act,1961 extends its hands extensively, embracing the range of research sports. This inclusivity reflects a complete information of the multifaceted nature of innovation.

Dynamic Amendments: Reflecting Changing Realities

The series of amendments woven into Section 35 of the Income Tax Act 1961 exhibit legislative agility. By retaining tempo with evolving technology and studies priorities, the authorities ensure that the tax framework stays an ally to businesses in place of an impediment. The published 2006 amendments, especially, signal a dedication to adaptability, positioning Section 35 of the Income Tax Act,1961  as a forward-looking tool.

In-House R&D: Nurturing Corporate Innovation

Subsection (2AB) shines a highlight on in-house research and improvement centres inside groups. By presenting a robust deduction for such endeavours, the law now not most effectively recognizes the significance of company innovation but actively promotes it. This resonates with global trends wherein companies are increasingly more visible as drivers of technological improvements.

Collaboration with Educational Institutions: A Strategic Partnership

The inclusion of universities, colleges, and National Laboratories inside the ambit of deductions underscores the significance of collaborative efforts inside the scientific panorama. By incentivizing partnerships between groups and educational institutions, Section 35 of the Income Tax Act 1961  sets the stage for a symbiotic courting in which research interprets seamlessly from academia to sensible programs within the global enterprise.

Amalgamation Dynamics: Balancing Corporate Restructuring and Taxation

The cautious approach mentioned in subsection (five) throughout amalgamation emphasizes the need for sensitive stability among company restructuring and keeping the integrity of tax advantages. This provision safeguards the capability misuse of deductions, reinforcing the government’s commitment to an honest and equitable tax machine.

Time Sensitivity: Prompt Decision-Making for a Swift Innovation Ecosystem

The time-sensitive nature of approvals and notifications injects a sense of urgency into the surroundings. It is now not the most effective tool for streamlining decision-making. However, it also guarantees that companies can swiftly leverage tax advantages, growing conducive surroundings for non-stop innovation.

Prescribed Authority: A Gatekeeper Ensuring Genuine Commitment

The function of the prescribed authority as a gatekeeper adds an additional layer of assurance. By scrutinizing the feasibility of scientific studies packages, this authority becomes an essential element in ensuring that groups seeking deductions are committed to advancing research dreams.

Global Alignment: Meeting International Standards of Innovation

In a globalized world, Section 35 of the Income Tax Act 1961 aligns India’s tax incentives with worldwide standards for innovation. This now draws overseas investments in research and improvement and positions Indian agencies as worldwide players in modern technologies.

Long-Term Vision: Fostering a Culture of Research and Development

Section 35 of the Income Tax Act 1961 is more than a fixed tax provision; it is a manifestation of a protracted-term vision. By fostering a subculture of research and development, the government is laying the foundation for a sustained monetary boom, task advent, and recognition as a hub for innovation.


In the end, Section 35 of the Income Tax Act 1961 emerges no longer merely as a legal clause but as a beacon illuminating the course of innovation. Its provisions, amendments, and strategic considerations collectively make a contribution to a dynamic framework that now not only helps agencies in their studies endeavours but actively propels India into a destiny wherein innovation isn’t just recommended—it’s embedded within the cloth of the state’s economic and technological panorama. As companies navigate these provisions, they aren’t just unlocking tax blessings; they are contributing to a narrative of progress, discovery, and innovation that defines the destiny of India.



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