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Mankind has assessed numerous skills, learning, and innovations to transform nature to his requirement. Sanity has prevailed on mankind to bequeath the future generation an environment they can also enjoy as we had. This is our commitment to progeny. This approach has led us to re-think study and assess the environmental impact on a project level and strategic level. In this blog, we will discuss the Environment Impact Assessment in detail;
Table of Contents
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the project of policies, plans, and programs, which are related to the proposed program associated with the organ of the state. The applicants may be individuals or companies. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is governed by the administrative rules and procedures for public participation and documentation of decision making. It may be subject to judicial review.
As the subject is a matter of immense international responsibility, the international commune is a vital stakeholder in the impact assessment as well. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as “the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals before major decisions being taken and commitments made.”
Here are some of the stages in the Environmental Assessment process include:
The main objectives of EIA are
The first comprehensive environmental legislation came into force on 1st January 1970 in the United States in the form of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In India, on 27th January 1994, the Central Ministry of Environment and Forests issued Notification for making EIA statutory for 29 specific activities falling under sectors such as industries, mining, irrigation, power, and transport, etc. This Notification was amended on 4th May 1994; it includes the detailed procedure for obtaining environmental clearance, technical information. And documents required for getting ecological approval from the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should have the following information’s/data:
Whenever a new development project is started, which is likely to affect environmental quality, it is necessary to carry out EIA.
In the EIA system, there is a sequence of activities logically implemented in a project, termed as the EIA process. Guiding Principles:
The entire process of EIA is governed by eight guiding principles which are-
Stakeholders’ involvement occurs in various stages of EIA to ensure quality, efficiency, and effectiveness.
Identify impacts that require monitoring and auditing.
Complete information in the report, including non-technical summary, methodologies used, results, interpretation, and conclusions. The review assesses the adequacy of issues and facilitates the decision-making process.
The project may be accepted, accepted with some changes, or rejected.
EIA is potentially a useful component of sound environmental management. It is the Government policy that before getting any approval by the planning commission, any industrial project has to obtain EIA clearance from Ministry of Environment.
EIA is exercised in India and its evaluation using a SWOT analysis. In India Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been formally introduced in 1994. It has a stable supporting legislative, administrative, and procedural set-up. Central and State authorities together are sharing the responsibility of its development and management. A Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis has taken up in this article.
This article concludes with some suggestions to improve the EIA process in India. SWOT works on improper screening and scoping guidelines to ineffective monitoring and post-project evaluation. This analysis aims to increase public awareness, initiatives of environmental groups, and the business community. The public can forward-thinking to integrate ecological consideration into plans and policies. Poor governance, rapid economic reforms, and favours to small-scale units are some of the foreseen threats to the system.
The Governments of India and the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh (HP) recently adopted policy changes intended to expedite development approvals for power projects. This paper focuses on the 1997 amendments to the Environmental Protection Act that establish procedures for public hearings as a component of EIA.
Three hydro project public hearings in the Kullu District (HP) in 1998 show that public involvement and public hearing processes are in their nascent stages despite the rapid pace of development. Many constraints, such as inaccessibility of information, lack of familiarity with EIA, and lack of institutional capacity, hinder severe public involvement. Public concerns focused on safety issues (blasting), new road construction, and jobs, with little consideration of environmental impact.
The Government has announced: Green mobility gets fresh e-charge. The Government is concerned about the continuous increase in the pollution level across cities due to emissions and wants greater and faster adoption of greener vehicles. The budget has also removed import duty on part for electric vehicles such as e-drive assembly, on-board charger, e-compressor and charging the gun.
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