Overview of Indian Accounting Standards Accounting is considered the language of a business as it communicates the financial results of the business to its stakeholders by financial statements. An unregulated financial process can misrepresent the company's reputation, and that is when the Accounting Standards become important. The Indian Accounting Standards are, commonly known as Ind AS, which are the minimum standards that need to be followed by a company to maintain the books of Accounts or the disclosures that need to be provided while preparing the financial Statements. They deal with the issues of recognition, presentation and maintenance of transactions and events and disclosure requirements. These standards are structured in a similar way of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS ) and were recommended to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs(MCA) by the National Financial Reporting Authority ( NFRA). The companies in India adopt these Accounting Standards under the supervision of Accounting Standards Board which is an autonomous body constituted in the year 1977 by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India consisting of academicians’ government depart and other professional bodies. Bodies that Govern Applicability of Ind As (Indian Accounting Standards) The following institutions govern the applicability of Ind As- Institute of Chartered Accountants of India Securities Exchange Board of India Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) Insurance Regulatory Authority of India National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards (NACAS) Objectives of The Indian Accounting Standards The Indian Accounting Standards have the following Objectives – Ensure the adoption of the Accounting Standards by the companies in India in order to maintain the books of accounts as per the best practices which are recognized internationally. Have a unified framework for the preparation of books of accounts and ensure transparency in the financial process. Enhance harmonization due to the company’s adherence to the global standards Ensure that the Accounting Standards are being complied with across the globe and increase the global reach of the Indian companies/ Applicability of Ind As The government of India and the Ministry of Corporate Affairs released a notification related to the adoption and applicability of Indian Accounting Standards by all companies in India. This notification was brought through a legislative enactment Companies (Indian Accounting Standards (IND AS)) Rules 2015. As per the above notification, all companies which receive this notification would be required to adopt Ind As in a phased manner in the financial year 2016-17. Since the above enactment, there have been three amendments in the notification, which occurred in 2016, 2017 and 2018. Benefits of Adopting Indian Accounting Standards There are different forms of benefits to adopting Indian Accounting Standards: Harmonization Adopting the Indian Accounting Standards can help in the harmonization of the company with the other countries due to the company s adherence to the global standards Expansion of Business The Indian Accounting Standards are recognised internationally. This can help the company expand their business internationally and set up an international base. World Wide Acceptance The Indian Accounting Standards ensure international acceptance amongst all institutions and governmental bodies. Compliance Adopting these standards can help in the company's effective compliance. Other Information Section Phases of Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards The Adoption of the Indian Accounting Standards was divided into phases per the notification of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs; the division of the phases was based on the Net Worth and listing status of the company. The Phases of Adoption of the Indian Accounting Standards are enumerated below- Phase 1 The first phase of Indian Accounting Standards was mandatorily applicable for the companies in India w.e.f 1st April 2016 only if The company is listed or unlisted Have a Net Worth of more than 500 Cr. The calculation of the net worth is on the basis of the financial statements of the previous 3 FY i.e. 31.03. 14 – 31.03.16. Phase 2 This phase of Indian Accounting Standards was mandatorily applicable for the companies in India w.e.f 1st April 2017 only if The company is listed or in the process of being listed Have a Net Worth of more than 250 Cr. but less than 500 Cr. for the FY 2014-2016 The net worth is calculated on the basis of the financial statements of the previous 4 FY i.e. 31.03. 14 – 31.03.17 Phase 3 This phase is mandatorily applicable for all the banks, NBFC and Insurance companies in India w.e.f 1st April 2018 only if The company is listed or in the process of being listed Have a Net Worth of more than 500 Cr. Wef 1st April 2018 There are separate Ind AS for Banking and Insurance Companies with effect from 1st April 2018 as notified by IRDA, along with separate Core investment companies, stockbrokers, venture capitalists, etc. are all included in NBFCS. The calculation of the net worth is based on the financial statements of the previous 3 FY i.e. 31.03. 16 – 31.03.18 Phase 4 This phase is mandatorily applicable for all NBFCs in India w.e.f 1st April 2019 only if The company have a Net Worth of more than 250 Cr.but less than 500 Cr. The company can follow the Indian Accounting Standards either voluntarily or mandatorily. However, if the company follows Ind AS on a mandatory basis, it can not revert back from the same. Applicability of Indian Accounting Standards subsidiary or associate companies If an Indian company adopts the accounting standard, it will apply to all subsidiaries, sister companies, holding companies and associate companies. No form of individual qualification would be considered for these forms of companies. Hence The applicability of IND AS would be automatic. If a foreign company controls a company, then the accounting principles must be considered on a standalone basis. The implementation of IND AS would not be required for those companies. Services provided under Indian Accounting Standard Business advisory services related to specific Ind AS & IFRS applicability, i.e. Business merger, Consolidation, Financial Instruments, Hedge Accounting, Leases, and Revenue Recognition Planning, implementation, and conversion of IND Accounting standards. Facilitating conversion to the new IND AS standards. Assisting in analyzing the difference between GAAP and Indian Accounting standards. Assistance in deciding new policies and procedures must be implemented under the Indian Accounting Standards. Assistance in executing the identified changes for meeting Ind Accounting standards Training as required to the staff on Ind AS concepts and requirements Assistance in the compilation of financial statements under the IND Accounting Standards. List of Applicable Indian Accounting Standards The following table provides a list of the major applicable Ind AS as on 01/02/2022 Ind AS 1 Prepration of Financial Statements Ind AS 2 Inventories Accounting Ind AS 7 Statement of Cash Flows Ind AS 8 Accounting Policies , Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors Ind AS 10 Events and Reporting Period Ind AS 12 Income Taxes Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment Ind AS 17 Leases Ind AS 18 Revenue Ind AS 19 Employee benefits Ind AS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance Ind AS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates Ind AS 23 Borrowing Costs Ind AS 24 Related Party Disclosures Ind AS 27 Separate Financial Statements Ind AS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures Ind AS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies Ind AS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation Ind AS 33 Earnings per Share Ind AS 34 Interim Financial Reporting Ind AS 36 Impairment of Assets Ind AS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets Ind AS 38 Intangible Assets Ind AS 40 Investment Property Ind AS 41 Agriculture Ind AS 101 First-time adoption of Ind AS Ind AS 102 Share Based payments Ind AS 103 Business Combination Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts Ind AS 105 Non-Current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations Ind AS 106 Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources Ind AS 107 Financial Instruments: Disclosures Ind AS 108 Operating Segments Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments Ind AS 110 Consolidated Financial Statements Ind AS 111 Joint Arrangements Ind AS 112 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities Ind AS 113 Fair Value Measurement Ind AS 114 Regulatory Deferral Accounts Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers Enterslice Assistance Section Indian Accounting Standards: Our Role Assistance in Adoption of Accounting Standards. Providing proper assistance in analyzing the difference between Indian GAAP (Generally accepted accounting principles) and Ind As. Assistance in the execution of identified changes for harmonizing to Ind AS. Training the staff of the company on key Accounting standard concepts and prerequisites. Assistance in the collection of financial statements.